Published on May 2020 | Electrochemistry

Epidermal Enzymatic Biosensors for Sweat Vitamin C: Toward Personalized Nutrition
Authors: Juliane R. Sempionatto, Ahmed A. Khorshed, Aftab Ahmed, Lu Yin, K. Yugender Goud, Mona A. Mohamed, Claire Chatelle, and Joseph Wang*
View Author: Dr. aftab ahmed
Journal Name: ACS Sensors
Volume: 5 Issue: 6 Page No: 1804–1813
Indexing: Google Scholar

Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies offer new opportunities for improving dietary adherence. However, despite their tremendous promise, the potential of wearable chemical sensors for guiding personalized nutrition solutions has not been reported. Herein, we present an epidermal biosensor aimed at following the dynamics of sweat vitamin C after the intake of vitamin C pills and fruit juices. Such skin-worn noninvasive electrochemical detection of sweat vitamin C has been realized by immobilizing the enzyme ascorbate oxidase (AAOx) on flexible printable tattoo electrodes and monitoring changes in the vitamin C level through changes in the reduction current of the oxygen cosubstrate. The flexible vitamin C tattoo patch was fabricated on a polyurethane substrate and combined with a localized iontophoretic sweat stimulation system along with amperometric cathodic detection of the oxygen depletion during the enzymatic reaction. The enzyme biosensor offers a highly selective response compared to the common direct (nonenzymatic) voltammetric measurements, with no effect on electroactive interfering species such as uric acid or acetaminophen. Temporal vitamin C profiles in sweat are demonstrated using different subjects taking varying amounts of commercial vitamin C pills or vitamin C-rich beverages. The dynamic rise and fall of such vitamin C sweat levels is thus demonstrated with no interference from other sweat constituents. Differences in such dynamics among the individual subjects indicate the potential of the epidermal biosensor for personalized nutrition solutions. The flexible tattoo patch displayed mechanical resiliency to multiple stretching and bending deformations. In addition, the AAOx biosensor is shown to be useful as a disposable strip for the rapid in vitro detection of vitamin C in untreated raw saliva and tears following pill or juice intake. These results demonstrate the potential of wearable chemical sensors for noninvasive nutrition status assessments and tracking of nutrient uptake toward detecting and correcting nutritional deficiencies, assessing adherence to vitamin intake, and supporting dietary behavior change.

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